Introduction of URL
URL full form is Uniform Resource Locator is generally known as web address. It is a reference to website’s resources which specifies its location on the computer network (that is internet ) and it also contains the mechanism to retrieve its information. URL is a particular type of Uniform Resource Identifier (abbreviated as URI) . Normally URI and URL are used interchangeably among the people but they are different. It is mostly used to refer to the webpage pages (http), but they can be used for email (mailto) , file transfer (ftp) and many other applications.
Description of URL
In most of the web browsers the URL full form Uniform Resource Locator web address is displayed on top of the page. For example https://www.google.com/index.html
The URL consists of three components:
Here https is the protocol
www.google.com is the hostname.
index.html is the file name
URL full form is Uniform Resource Locator was first defined in the year 1994 by Tim Berners-Lee. URL’s format is combined with an existing system domain names and syntax of file name. In URL slashes are for differentiating the directory and filenames.
As the world wide users of internet use multiple languages for typing and making domains in alphabets of their own language. To manage these issues an International Resource Identifier(IRI) is used. It is form of the URL which include Unicode characters (commonly known as ASCII characters). All of the modern browsers support the IRI feature. The parts of URL which are supposed to be treated specially for the usage of different alphabets are the domain path and domain name.
The domain name which is in IRI form is known as IDN which stands for International Domain Name. These days Web and internet softwares automatically convert this type of domains into punycode. It is usable by domain systems. Here is an example of a Chinese website such as:
http://例子.卷筒纸 this domain will become http://xn--fsqu00a.xn--3lr804guic/. The xn-- indicates that the domain is converted to ASCII value , however originally it was not in ASCII values.